4.13 Comprehensive Campus Safety and Security Policy

  1. Authority
    ​The Board of Regents has broad authority to implement policies to protect life and property on its campuses, and, as expressly identified in law, to allow any institution under its control to employ peace officers. (Iowa Code §262.9 (PDF) and 262.13 (PDF))
     
  2. Policy Purpose
    1. The Board is committed to establishing and maintaining the safest possible campus environments for its students, faculty, staff, and visitors as well as safeguarding physical property.
       
    2. It is the policy of the Board that each Regent campus develops and maintains comprehensive plans to assure appropriate guidance and direction in promoting a safe and secure campus environment. The Board delegates authority to each institution head to implement comprehensive campus safety and security policies and procedures consistent with this chapter.
  3. Definitions
    1. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED): A multi-disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behavior. Strategies rely upon the ability to influence offender decisions that precede criminal acts and emphasize enhancing the perceived risk of detection and apprehension. Most implementations of CPTED are based solely upon the theory that the proper design and effective use of the built environment can reduce crime, reduce the fear of crime, and improve the quality of life. Implementations of CPTED seek to dissuade offenders from committing crimes by manipulating the environment in which those crimes proceed from or occur. The three most common strategies are natural surveillance, natural access control, and natural territorial reinforcement.
       
    2. Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets: The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of an institutional community, to include areas such as: power and utility substations; special event venues; schools; child care centers; residence complexes; food preparation and storage facilities; classrooms and laboratories; mass transit organizations; water pumping or storage locations; information technology sites; hospitals; clinics; and fuel and chemical storage sites.
       
    3. Incident Command System: A standardized on-scene emergency management construct, specifically designed to provide for the adoption of an integrated organizational structure that reflects the complexity and demands of single or multiple incidents, without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries.
       
    4. Iowa Law Enforcement Academy: The official state-sponsored agency created by the Iowa legislature, Iowa Code chapter 80B (PDF). The general purposes for which the academy and its governing council were established include: to maximize training opportunities for law enforcement officers; to officially certify peace officers; to coordinate training records; and to set state standards for law enforcement service.
       
    5. Mutual Aid: A cooperative written agreement for the exchange of services, personnel, and/or equipment among participating parties on an emergency or routine basis to more effectively and efficiently serve the interests of affected agencies and the public.
       
    6. National Incident Management System: A system that provides a consistent nationwide approach for federal, state, and local governments, private-sector groups, and nongovernmental organizations to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity.
       
    7. Peace Officer: Also referred to as a police officer or a law enforcement officer. A duly sworn employee who is certified by the Iowa Law Enforcement Academy as having successfully completed the required course of instruction for a peace officer and who is currently employed as such by a Regent campus. Related duties include: enforcing criminal laws; arresting violators; responding to dispatched calls for a variety of services; investigating crimes and traffic accidents; processing documents such as citations, complaints, affidavits and warrants; collecting evidence; authoring incident reports; performing rescue functions at accidents, emergencies and disasters; and testifying in court. University peace officers are authorized to routinely carry firearms in the course of their duties.
       
    8. Peace Officer Certification: The issuance of a certificate by the Iowa Law Enforcement Academy to a law enforcement officer upon documentation that the officer has been trained in compliance with established standards.
       
    9. Security Guard: A civilian public safety employee who, under direct supervision, patrols assigned areas to help protect students, faculty, staff and visitors, as well as property and equipment. Related duties include: locking and unlocking doors based on schedules and requests; reporting disorderly or suspicious behavior; monitoring safety devices; responding to questions from community members; performing safety escorts; and assisting with traffic control and other public safety-related duties. Such employees have no powers of arrest and are not authorized to carry firearms in the course of their duties.
       
    10. Student Security Personnel: Part-time student public safety employees who, under direct supervision, patrol assigned areas to enhance the safety of persons using the campus. Related duties include: securing University buildings and the property contained therein; observing and reporting criminal activity; detecting and reporting security concerns, lighting problems, and other maintenance problems or concerns; performing safety escorts; and assisting with traffic control and other public safety- related duties. Such employees have no powers of arrest and are not authorized to carry firearms in the course of their duties.
  4. General Guidelines
    1. Each institution is to develop and maintain comprehensive plans to assure appropriate guidance and direction in promoting a safe and secure campus environment.
       
    2. Each institution shall have methods for providing timely notification and ongoing communication to campus community members, the Board Office, and Board members regarding pertinent emergency information.
       
    3. Each institution shall have processes, procedures, staffing, and training in threat assessment and management to facilitate early identification and intervention of individuals who may pose a threat to themselves or others.
       
    4. Each institution shall have processes and procedures to evaluate and implement appropriate measures to address personal safety and physical security.
       
    5. Each university shall maintain appropriately trained public safety personnel on campus that includes police officers as well as security personnel.
       
    6. Each institution shall annually report on the status of safety and security, to include: mass communications capabilities; threat assessment and management; physical security capabilities; and training of institutional personnel.
  5. Public Safety Unit
    1. Each institution shall designate a unit on its campus that shall work cooperatively with institutional administrators, campus constituencies, and other entities to develop and implement overall safety and security-related protocols for its campus.
       
    2. All unit members must embrace the importance of, and be responsive to, a vibrant and diverse academic community.
  6. Emergency Communications
    One of the keys to increasing campus safety is providing timely, clear, and concise communication to community members. The following provides a summary of protocols and actions that each institution shall implement, as appropriate, to facilitate emergency communication:
    1. Designate personnel who are authorized to initiate campus-wide emergency communications.
       
    2. Maintain voice-capable outdoor warning systems.
       
    3. Institute a broad-based communications system that will permit timely notification to students, faculty, and staff using combinations of voice and text messaging technologies.
       
    4. Provide web-based information pertaining to a variety of critical incidents.
       
    5. Evaluate emergency communication needs and systems on a continuing basis.
       
    6. Assess available and emerging communication technology and delivery systems on a continuing basis
  7. Threat Assessment and Management
    It is essential that campuses regularly and centrally work to identify faculty, staff, and students who may be suffering from mental health and/or behavioral problems that may pose safety risks. The following provides a summary of protocols and actions that each institution shall implement, as appropriate, to facilitate early identification, assessment, and management of individuals who may pose a threat to themselves or others:
    1. Provide informational sessions to faculty, staff, and students regarding the identification and reporting of individuals who may pose a risk. Related training should be provided by personnel representing a variety of disciplines, to include: human resources; counseling services; public safety; and legal counsel.
       
    2. Utilize staff members who are specially trained in threat assessment and management as well as faculty whose research and teaching interests coincide with this area.
       
    3. Employ public safety, counseling, and employee assistance staff as identified by institutional needs.
       
    4. Utilize a multidisciplinary (e.g., academic, law enforcement, mental health) team to share and review information about individuals who may pose a threat. The team should work collaboratively to develop intervention strategies for individuals who potentially pose a risk to themselves or others.
       
    5. Continue to develop and provide prevention programs to improve campus safety.
  8. Personal Safety and Physical Security
    Institutions must have a comprehensive set of programs, procedures, systems, and operations that balance the requirements of an open campus with the safety and security needs of its students, faculty, staff, and visitors. Additionally, such institutions must develop a strategy for the protection of critical infrastructures and key assets on their respective campuses. The following provides a summary of protocols and actions that each institution shall implement, as appropriate, to enhance personal safety and security of property of all community members:
    1. Maintain a list of current critical infrastructures and key assets for the prioritization of future safety and security enhancements.
       
    2. Continually review safety and security measures to determine needs and to create an enhanced level of security.
       
    3. Prioritize and evaluate the implementation of electronic and mechanical access control measures for new construction and existing structures.
       
    4. Incorporate Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles for existing and new construction. The application of CPTED shall include: reviewing architectural drawings; consulting with design and construction staff; examining lighting needs; and identifying safety concerns.
       
    5. Evaluate and assess critical assets and areas where video technology may enhance physical security and personal safety.
       
    6. Evaluate the needs and protocols associated with campus safety, such as safety escort services, sexual assault response, and emergency telephones.
       
    7. Ensure a system is in place for the timely reporting and repair of malfunctioning locking mechanisms and lighting devices.
       
    8. Provide educational programming materials to faculty, staff, and students addressing personal safety and physical security.
  9. Response to Critical Incidents
    1. Each institution shall maintain an all-hazard plan for responding to critical incidents such as: natural and human-made disasters; public health emergencies; civil disturbances; mass arrests; bomb threats; hostage/barricaded person situations; acts of terrorism; and other unusual occurrences. The plan shall follow Incident Command System (ICS) protocols and include provisions for: command; operations; planning; logistics; and finance/administration.
       
    2. Response to campus critical incidents shall be in compliance with National Incident Management Systems (NIMS) standards.
       
    3. Multi-jurisdictional exercises shall be held at least annually to evaluate response and management capabilities.
       
    4. Each institution shall notify affected entities of critical incidents as appropriate. Major criminal cases requiring specialized expertise may result in assistance being requested from outside law enforcement agencies.
  10. Mutual Aid Agreements and Other Agreements
    1. Each institution shall establish written mutual aid agreements with their respective local law enforcement agencies to ensure that cooperative working relationships are developed and maintained for the mutual benefit of all concerned parties in accordance with institutional policies. Any established mutual aid agreements shall be in accordance with Chapter 28E (PDF) of the Code of Iowa.
       
    2. Memoranda of Understanding as well as other agreements may be established as deemed necessary.
  11. University Public Safety Entity
    The size and scope of each Regent university dictate the need for a focused and dedicated public safety entity to work cooperatively with institutional administrators, campus constituencies, and other entities to develop and implement overall safety and security protocols.

    Each university is to establish a police department and a security unit in promoting safe and secure campus environments.  Designated personnel, as defined below, must be appropriately trained and properly equipped to perform their assigned responsibilities.
    1. Police Department
      1. Each university shall ensure its police department meets or exceeds professionally recognized standards pertaining to selection, training, equipment, and staffing.
         
      2. Professional organizations include: International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA); International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP); Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA); American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS); Association of Threat Assessment Professionals (ATAP); United States Department of Homeland Security (USDHS); and the Iowa Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA).
    2. Police Officers
      The Board directs that state-certified police officers employed at the three Regent universities carry firearms in the regular performance of their duties in accordance with the following criteria:
      1. Police officers shall continue to meet or exceed state standards as outlined in the Iowa Administrative Code, Section 501-2.1 (80B) (PDF), 501-2.2 (80B) (PDF) with regard to education, pre-employment medical and psychological examinations, written cognitive testing, thorough background investigations, and physical fitness assessments.
         
      2. All police officers shall earn certification through the Iowa Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA).
         
      3. Following ILEA certification, all police officers shall successfully complete an intensive field-training program prior to working in an independent capacity.
         
      4. Police officers shall receive training in, and qualify with, all approved firearms before being allowed to carry such weapons. Pursuant to Iowa Administrative Code 501-8.1(80B) (PDF), law enforcement officers must qualify with all duty handguns annually on a course approved by the Iowa Law Enforcement Academy.
         
      5. University police officers shall be required to exceed state firearms training standards in terms of frequency and scope. Such officers shall qualify at least semi-annually to demonstrate proficiency, safe handling techniques, and weapon retention. In addition, those officers shall demonstrate a thorough knowledge and understanding of use of force issues, to include: applicable state statutes and constitutional constraints; departmental policies; and critical decision-making regarding appropriate lethal and less-lethal options.
         
      6. In accordance with nationally recognized best practices endorsed by the National Tactical Officers Association (NTOA) and the Iowa Law Enforcement Academy, police officers shall train in active shooter response. Training scenarios should be conducted at least annually and include other law enforcement agencies, emergency medical responders, and key University staff. All police officers shall receive training approved by instructors with the Iowa Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) or other professionally recognized training organizations. Tactics and the selection of equipment and firearms shall be in accordance with ILEA, State of Iowa Department of Public Safety, and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) recommendations and standards.
    3. Use of Force and Reporting
      1. Use of force policies adopted by each University shall meet or exceed standards established by national organizations, including: Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA); International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP); and International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA). Pursuant to constitutional law and state statutes, police officers shall use only the force necessary to accomplish lawful objectives.
         
      2. Any use of deadly force shall be in accordance with constitutional law and Iowa Code 804.8 (PDF). A police officer may use deadly force only when the police officer reasonably believes that the action is in defense of human life, including the police officer’s own life, or in defense of any person in imminent danger of serious physical injury.
         
      3. A written report shall be completed by the University and an investigation conducted whenever a police officer: discharges a firearm for other than training; takes an action that results in, or is alleged to have resulted in, injury or death of another person; applies force through the use of lethal or less lethal weapons; or applies weaponless physical force.
         
      4. Incidents involving serious injury or death shall be immediately reported to institutional administrators and the Executive Director of the Board of Regents.
         
      5. Any police officer whose actions or use of force in an official capacity results in serious physical injury or death shall be placed on administrative leave, pending a review. The affected University Director of Public Safety shall be responsible for contacting the Iowa Division of Criminal Investigation (DCI) to conduct an independent review as necessary.
    4. Authorized Weapons and Ammunition
      1. Only approved firearms and ammunition shall be used by police officers performing law enforcement responsibilities. Selection of firearms and ammunition shall be made in consultation with the Iowa Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA), the State of Iowa Department of Public Safety, and other local, state and federal law enforcement agencies.
         
      2. Approved firearms and ammunition being used by University police agencies shall meet Iowa Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) recommendations for law enforcement use. As such, firearms shall be of a reliable and reputable manufacture and duty ammunition shall be selected with regard to reliability, accuracy, and function. Only holsters equipped with retention capabilities shall be used.
         
      3. Each university shall promulgate written directives that shall address: the types and specifications of all weapons and ammunition approved for use; procedures for review, inspection, and approval by an ILEA-certified instructor of all weapons intended for use; a process to remove unsafe weapons; procedures for maintaining a record on each weapon approved for official use; and guidelines for the safe and proper storage of agency authorized firearms.
    5. General Training
      1. Pursuant to Iowa Administrative Code 501-8.1(80B) (PDF), all law enforcement officers must meet mandatory minimum in-service requirements regarding firearms, CPR, and general training.
         
      2. University police officers shall be required to exceed state training standards in terms of hours and scope. Instruction shall include topics pertinent to a campus culture, such as: bias-based profiling; use of force; diversity; ethics; conflict resolution; de-escalation techniques; dealing with emotionally disturbed persons; legal updates; community based policing; crime prevention; substance abuse; domestic violence; sexual assault; hate crimes; stalking; and harassment.
    6. Security Unit
      1. Each university shall employ security and other support personnel who provide a variety of services to enhance safety on campus. Such employees have no powers of arrest, and are not authorized to carry firearms in the course of their duties.
         
      2. Each university shall ensure that all security and support personnel receive initial and ongoing training commensurate with job responsibilities. Position classifications may include:
        1. Security Guard: A civilian public safety employee who, under direct supervision, patrols assigned areas to help protect of students, faculty, staff, and visitors, as well as property and equipment. Related duties include: locking and unlocking doors based on schedules and requests; reporting disorderly or suspicious behavior; monitoring safety devices; responding to questions from community members; performing safety escorts; and assisting with traffic control and other public safety-related duties.
           
        2. Student Security Personnel: Part-time student public safety employees who, under direct supervision, patrol assigned areas to enhance the safety of persons using the campus. Related duties include: securing University buildings and the property contained therein; observing and reporting criminal activity; detecting and reporting security concerns, lighting problems, and other maintenance problems or concerns; performing safety escorts; and assisting with traffic control and other public safety-related duties.
           
        3. Parking Enforcement Personnel: Full-time employees and part-time student staff who patrol campus to ensure compliance with parking regulations. Related duties include: issuing parking citations; providing assistance to motorists; and assisting with traffic direction and control.
    7. Fire and Environmental Safety
      1. Fire Safety Coordinator: A civilian public safety employee who coordinates inspections with state and local fire officials. Related duties include reviewing applicable codes and building plans and reporting fire code violations.
         
      2. Each year the institutions shall submit reports to the Board Office indicating the results of the latest State Fire Marshal’s inspection, the results of the latest Department of Labor or other environmental safety inspections, and programs completed or underway to correct deficiencies. The report shall indicate the financial needs to correct outstanding deficiencies. Financial needs are to be integrated into the annual capital request and the Five-Year Capital Plans.
         
      3. All institutions are required to notify immediately the Chief Operations Officer if any facilities within their jurisdiction have been cited for violations of any federal, state, or local laws or regulations or have been decertified or notified of the threat of decertification from compliance with any state, federal, or other nationally recognized certification or accreditation agency or organization.
    8. Fire Protection Contracts
      1. The Board of Regents shall have power to enter into contracts with the governing body of any city, town, or other municipal corporation for the protection from fire of any property under the control of the Board, located in any such municipal corporation or in territory contiguous thereto, upon such terms as may be agreed upon.  (Iowa Code §262.33 (PDF))
         
      2. New contracts or renewal of contracts shall be brought to the Board for approval.  Annual payments as specified in a multi-year contract previously approved by the Board shall be made by the institution involved without further Board approval.